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Myśl europejska w poszukiwaniu definicji obywatela. Rzecz o koncepcjach statusu jednostki w państwie przed przełomem rewolucji francuskiej. Kontekst historyczny, podobieństwa i różnice, znaczenie

Krzysztof Trzciński

European Thought in Search of the Definition of a Citizen. Concepts of an Individual ’s Status in the State before the French Revolution...

The whole title: ... Kontekst historyczny, podobieństwa i różnice, znaczenie / ... Historical Context, Similarities, Differences and Meaning It is commonly acknowledged that legal acts of the times of the French Revolution allowed a modern definition of a European citizen. Developed concepts of the status of an individual in the state can be found in, stimulated by the 17th century English liberal reforms, Locke’s views and, responding to absolutistic reality, French (Montesquieu, Rousseau)and German (Kant) 18th century philosophy of state. A subject man, deprived of rights, but not of duties, totally dependent on the monarch, was transformed into a citizen with rights, contributing to equality towards law. The picture of a citizen before the revolution was contradictory to the idea of social estates and resulting citizen rights.