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Pietyzm w Skandynawii - u źródeł nordyckiego protestantyzmu ludowego

Grażyna Szelągowska

Pietism in Scandinavia - at the Sources of Nordic Popular Protestantism

At the break of 17 and 18 centuries Scandinavia was permeated with th th the ideas of Pietism, a Lutheran movement of religious revival, focusing on the individual and emotional experience of faith, moral discipline and evangelization of society. Among the forms in which Pietism expressed itself in the first half of the 18th century were mostly alphabetization of the lower classes in order to make it possible for them personally to experience the Bible and Martin Luther’s teachings (among the other things, confirmation was introduced), establishment of religious communities (so-called conventicles), widespread philanthropic activity. The Pietists of those days were mainly townspeople and pro-Reform ministers, fighting against the routine of the national church. Pietism became a basis for the popular movement of Neo-Pietism, developing at the beginning of the 19th century, whose advocates these time were mostly Scandinavian peasants, transforming the old-days Pietism into a broad religious, social and political movement.